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Inside the Mind of a Psychopath 钻进变态的脑袋

时间: 2015年11月24日 | 作者: admin | 来源: 未知

精神变态者在罪犯当中占有一个异常高的比例。同情心的极度缺失,是精神变态者最典型的表现。现在的一项研究发现,当精神变态者看见别人难受时的照片时,他们的大脑活动和正常人有明显的不同。

研究人员评估了80名囚犯的精神变态程度,随后向他们展示了一些被故意伤害的人的照片,同时用功能性磁共振成像扫描他们的脑部。

和评估结果正常的人相比,那些在变态程度上得到高分的囚犯,大脑中与情绪反应、社会行为和决策相关的区域活跃性更弱。这项成果发表在《JAMA精神病学》上。

出人意料的是,这些精神变态者脑中与情感和自我意识相关的岛叶皮质表现出了显著的活动。研究人员猜想,这种反应可能是因为罪犯们能够想象这些痛苦发生在了自己身上。在另一篇尚未发表的论文中,研究人员让囚犯刻意想象一些发生在他人身上的痛苦之事。这一次,精神变态者的反应就没有那么强烈了。这样看来,只要是自己的事儿,精神变态者似乎还是能够对痛苦有所反应的。(撰文/播音 克里斯蒂·尼科尔森(Christie Nicholson)  翻译:吴兰)

英文原文:

Inside the Mind of a Psychopath

The brains of psychopaths react differently to images of someone being hurt than the brains of non-psychopaths. Christie Nicholson reports

Psychopaths are responsible for a disproportionate amount of crime. These people are primarily identified by an extreme lack of empathy. Now a study finds that when psychopaths see images of people in pain, there’s a pattern of activity in their brains that is quite different from brain activity in non-psychopaths.

Researchers tested 80 prisoners to gauge their levels of psychopathy. They then scanned the prisoners’ brains using functional MRI as the prisoners were shown photos of people being intentionally hurt.

Participants who scored high in psychopathy traits, versus those who were not considered psychopaths, showed much less activation in the areas of the brain involved in emotional reactions, social behavior and decision making. The study is published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry.

Unexpectedly, when viewing the photos the psychopaths experienced significant activity in the insular cortex, which is involved in emotion and self-awareness. The researchers conjecture that the reaction may have been due to the prisoners ability to imagine themselves in pain. In a still unpublished study with other inmates, subjects were specifically told to imagine the painful event happening to someone else. In that case, those scoring high in psychopathy had a lesser reaction. The psychopath thus seems able to relate to pain—as long as it’s his own.